Arthrosis of the foot - causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Pain during movement, impaired gait – symptoms which require referral to specialists. Arthritis of the foot affects the joints of the lower extremities, has unpleasant symptoms, but if pathology is identified at an early stage, there are chances to stop its expansion with the help of medication and folk remedies. Why a disease occurs, what ways treated – about this review of the methods of healing of the foot.

arthrosis of the foot

What is osteoarthritis of the foot

This disease refers to degenerative chronic disease. Arthrosis of the joints of the foot is characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage, inflammation of the soft tissues, violation of in them the metabolism and blood circulation. Pathology is accompanied by:

  • the sharp pain;
  • the distortion of the shape of the fingers;
  • limitation of motion of the joints;
  • problems while walking;
  • disability if neglected.


Pain is a frequent symptom of pathologies of the foot. They may be aggravated by prolonged exertion. Note the symptoms of arthrosis:

  • stiffness in the morning;
  • deforming changes in the joints;
  • fatigue when walking;
  • gait disturbance – reliance on the external edge of the foot;
  • swelling, redness of the joint;
  • the appearance of calluses on the sole;
  • stiffness of muscles;
  • the crunch when walking.

Osteoarthritis of the small joints of the foot it affects the cartilage, accompanied by:

  • aching, burning pain under load, which ends at rest;
  • development of rheumatoid arthritis of the hip joint;
  • the local increase in temperature;
  • reduced performance;
  • change body position because of the desire to unload the diseased joint;
  • dysfunction of the joints;
  • the appearance of bone growths;
  • muscle tension;
  • with the defeat of the first toe and the others.


Development of osteoarthritis of the foot contributes to a huge number of factors. This includes external causes associated with the condition. Arthrosis of the foot develops as a consequence of:

  • malformation of the joints;
  • degenerative changes;
  • pathology of the endocrine system;
  • flat feet;
  • violations of metabolic processes;
  • deformation of the toes;
  • wearing shoes with narrow and inconvenient;
  • injuries, sprains.

The development of the disease contribute to stop:

signs of arthrosis
  • the destruction of cartilage caused by old age – primary arthrosis;
  • improper formation of the leg;
  • hypothermia of the feet;
  • the curvature of the thumb;
  • transfer heavy things;
  • the extra weight of the body;
  • the broad structure of the foot;
  • different length feet;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • hormonal imbalances;
  • biomechanical irregularities in the motion of the foot;
  • infectious lesions of the joints;
  • the high-heel shoes;
  • chronic inflammatory processes.

Risk factors

There are circumstances that cause pathological changes in the feet. Violations can occur in childhood when the child makes the first steps. The risk factors for developing secondary osteoarthritis of the foot are:

  • pregnancy;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • high growth;
  • sports with a constant load on the legs – Boxing, football;
  • professional ballet classes, dancing;
  • a sharp denial from the sports activity;
  • improper diet;
  • the lack of vitamins, microelements;
  • canine hip dysplasia.

The extent of the disease

Depending on the clinical signs of the inflammatory process of the foot to distinguish the stage of the disease. It helps in the description of disease, purpose of therapeutic interventions. Distinguish severity of the disease with typical manifestations. It is advisable to consult a doctor if symptoms occur first, the initial stage, which is accompanied by:

  • the appearance of pain in the foot after a long walk, hard work;
  • fatigue.

Peculiarities of other degrees of osteoarthritis:

  • second, the pain is reinforced, there is limited mobility, calluses on the heels, thickening of the fingers in the injured joint;
  • the third significant deformity of the feet, lameness, limited mobility, or lack thereof, when conducting x-ray examination of the picture shows marked narrowing of joint cracks.

Possible consequences

The purpose of the articular cartilage protecting your bones. Arthrosis of the interphalangeal joints of the foot leads to a change in these tissues. The cartilages cease to amortize, begin to break down. All this increases the stress on the joint and causes:

  • the appearance of bone growths;
  • circulatory disorders;
  • deformation of the fingers;
  • fixing them in the curved condition.

Such changes are difficult to treat. Osteoarthritis of the feet, if they do not at the first signs of disease can cause:

  • unbearable pain during the touch;
  • significant bone growth;
  • the development of an inflammation of periarticular bags – bursitis of the foot;
  • the appearance of arthritis of the joints;
  • complete immobility of the foot;
  • disability.
diagnosis of osteoarthritis


If you have symptoms of arthrosis you must consult a podiatrist. An experienced specialist will rule out other diseases that have similar symptoms. Diagnosis begins with medical history, analysis of complaints, external examination, which shall be established:

  • the parameters of the foot;
  • the presence of deformation of the feet;
  • changes of the first toe;
  • swelling, redness;
  • the limited movement in the joint.

To clarify the diagnosis is carried out:

  • biochemical analysis of blood to detect inflammation.
  • x-ray – detects narrowing of the gaps in the joints, changes in cartilage, the degree of development of the pathology;
  • computed tomography explores the situation of the muscles, ligaments, and bone tissues;
  • arthroscopy evaluates the internal state of the joint.

Treatment of osteoarthritis of the feet

Doctors say that to cure the disease completely not to come out. Can alleviate the condition, relieve symptoms, prevent the final destruction of the joints. Therefore, it is important to start treatment at the first signs. Doctors give patients:

  • anti-inflammatory drugs for oral and topically;
  • physiotherapy;
  • gymnastics;
  • traditional medicines.

To improve the condition of the patient is prescribed:

  • wearing the orthopedic Shoe;
  • special insoles, arch supports, improve metabolism, blood circulation in the tissues of the foot;
  • mud, water bath;
  • massage feet;
  • manual therapy;
  • the fixing clamps on the limbs;
  • the cast for complete immobilization of the foot;
  • surgical intervention at the advanced stage of osteoarthritis.


For the treatment of diseases of feet used medicines that help relieve the patient's condition. Drugs differ in their action. For osteoarthritis of the feet is recommended:

  • Non-steroidal drugs to relieve pain, inflammation, reduce the swelling.
  • Painkillers.

Doctors used to treat drugs that improve the condition of cartilage:

  • The joint Supplement inhibit the degeneration of tissue, to stop damage.
  • Funds on the basis of hyaluronic acid.


The objective of the drugs for external use, vasodilatation, activate blood circulation. Ointments can help to numb and normalize tissue nutrition.

Exercises for the feet

In the complex treatment of degenerative diseases, great attention is paid to the strengthening of the muscles and joints of the foot. Exercises aimed at stretching the fingers, their bending. It is useful to perform exercises in the supine position:

  • bend and straighten the fingers at least 20 times;
  • to make rotational motion foot, 10 in each direction;
  • the position of the feet on the heel to perform the straightening of the foot to a horizontal position and back 15 times.
diet for osteoarthritis


Osteoarthritis requires proper nutrition. It is necessary to limit salt intake, to abandon the fast carbohydrates – cakes, sweets, alcoholic beverages. The diet should be low in calories to reduce excess weight. The diet must be present:

  • foods containing vitamins E, b – almond, pasta from durum wheat;
  • lean meat, fish;
  • dairy products rich in calcium;
  • vegetables;
  • fruit.

Wearing special footwear

To cope with the unpleasant symptoms and to prevent development of the disease helps to specifically made shoes. The therapeutic effect is orthotics. Choosing the right shoes contributes to the solution of problems of the musculoskeletal system:

  • returns the stop function of attenuation;
  • relieves painful symptoms;
  • reduces inflammation;
  • prevents the development of deformed joints.

Physical therapy

The objective of treatments for diseases of the feet, increasing blood circulation, elimination of pain, reduction of inflammation. Physical therapy is focused on warming the affected limb. The course of treatment is 12-15 procedures. In osteoarthritis prescribed:

  • laser therapy – soothes and relieves pain;
  • UHF – activates blood circulation, improves tissue nutrition;
  • ultraviolet radiation reduces the sensitivity of nerve endings, decreases the amount of pain signals received by the brain, which facilitates the condition;
  • electrophoresis;
  • magnetoline.


You can learn this useful procedure. Massage stimulates the metabolism in the tissues of the muscles, improves blood circulation and nutrition. It is carried out from the toes towards the ankle joint. The procedure includes:

surgical treatment
  • stroke, the rotational motion of individual fingers;
  • flexion and extension of each;
  • Ironing with a pressing surface of the sole, the sides and top of the foot;
  • study of the ankle joint.

Surgical treatment

If conservative methods of treating arthritis have failed, the patient's condition remains severe, prescribe surgery. There are several methods of operations. Popularity:

  • arthroplasty – removes damaged tissue, replacing their own connective or equivalents, forming a proper joint, keeping it moving;
  • arthroplasty – replacement of diseased joint with artificial implant;
  • arthrodesis – part is fixed in the correct position for further bonding, the mobility of the articulation is limited.

Folk remedies

Can alleviate the condition of the patient, if at home to use the recipes of traditional medicine. Doctors have a positive attitude to such methods in the complex treatment of osteoarthritis. Popular:

  • compresses with bischofite on the foot at night;
  • baths of honey and salt at bedtime;
  • tincture of aloe leaf for compresses;
  • rubbing bee venom;
  • mashed leaves are fern – apply at night;
  • pellet of therapeutic clay in the feet;
  • rubbing the joints with an infusion of mullein flowers;
  • the warm compress of oatmeal.


To avoid the appearance of unpleasant disease, you must follow some simple rules. One of them is a healthy way of life. To prevent arthritis you need to:

  • to organize proper nutrition;
  • restrict excessive physical exertion;
  • to get rid of excess weight;
  • to reduce the amount of salt;
  • to strengthen the immune system to exclude inflammatory and infectious diseases.

Preventive methods to the development of osteoarthritis include:

  • use comfortable shoes with flexible soles, orthopedic insoles;
  • elimination of high heels;
  • implementation of gymnastics for the joints of the foot;
  • walking barefoot on grass, sand;
  • avoid injuries of the lower extremities;
  • the exception is hypothermia of the feet;
  • self massage of the soles;
  • timely treatment of inflammatory diseases.