Arthrosis of the foot is a very common degenerative disease of the joints of the feet, which is localized not only in cartilage but also in the bones and even muscles. The most often pathology is manifested in the region of the metatarsophalangeal joint, diagnosed osteoarthritis of the big toe . The disease has a deforming character, so his progression will lead to disruption of normal structure of the foot.
The complexity of the pathology lies in the fact that the foot consists of a huge number of small joints, nerve endings and blood vessels. The defeat of the great toe takes place after 45 years. Osteoarthritis of the small joints is often seen in women younger than 35 years old and older than 50 years.
The reasons for the development of the disease
In most cases, arthrosis of the foot occurs due to circulatory disorders of the joints, mechanical wear and tear of the cartilage and bone tissue due to age, injury. There are the following possible reasons for development of osteoarthritis:
- The specific structure of the foot: too wide feet, curvature of fingers, flat feet. To trigger the pathology are capable of different length of legs.
- Too large physical load on the foot, especially in athletes or people engaged in heavy labor.
- Injuries, bruises, fractures, strokes, torn ligaments, muscle damage.
- Common hypothermia of the feet.
- Too much body weight, which increases the load on the legs.
- Mechanical wear of cartilage and bone due to old age.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Wearing too narrow or large shoes, high heel shoes.
To provoke osteoarthritis of the foot can and the following factors:
- hormonal disruptions, impaired functionality of the endocrine system;
- insufficient intake of micro - and macronutrients in the body;
- chronic infectious lesions of the joints of the feet;
- allergic reaction, autoimmune disease;
- congenital dislocation or dysplasia.
To cure arthritis completely impossible, however, to significantly improve the patient's condition and to prevent the complete deformation of joints. Therefore, the treatment should start after the first signs.
The symptoms of arthrosis
Pathology is manifested by such symptoms:
- Foot pain after prolonged walking or standing, and also the unpleasant discomfort after exercise.
- Swelling and redness in the affected area. It also can increase the local temperature.
- Painful reaction at the site of development of osteoarthritis on the weather changes or contact with cold water.
- Crunch in the joints of the foot and ankle (he appears with the development of the second degree of pathology).
- Too rapid fatigability of the legs.
- The limitation of the limb, the tension and stiffness of muscles, especially in the morning.
- The appearance of calluses in the region of the sole of the foot.
- Because the disease has a deforming character, over time, the patient may experience a gait disturbance.
Arthrosis of the foot also has such characteristics:
- Pain in the joints of the feet is aching or burning in nature.
- Appear osteophytes (bony overgrowth of the joints).
- The knuckles become thicker.
As arthritis joints affects not only bone and cartilage, but also muscle, it is a sign of a pathology may be the appearance of muscle cysts.
The variety and degree of pathology
As mentioned earlier, the stack consists of a very large number of small joints, therefore, the degenerative process may be localized anywhere. Depending on this, the osteoarthritis can be classified as follows:
- The defeat of the subtalar joint.
- Osteoarthritis of the calcaneal-cuboid joint.
- Defeat the metatarsal cuneiform joints.
- Disease of the metatarsophalangeal joint.
- Lesions of the toes.
It is possible to classify the pathology and causes:
- Primary. The reason for the development in this case is an inflammatory disease of the foot or trauma.
- Secondary. This form of the disease caused by reasons not directly related to the lesion of the foot. That is, in this case "blame" can be a hormonal imbalance or other factors.
- In polyarthrosis. This form involves the defeat of several small joints.
The degree of development of the pathology and its diagnosis
Before you treat arthritis of the foot must be properly diagnosed. The degree of development depends on the purpose of therapy. There are only three:
- First. It is characterized by rapid fatigue of the legs, and the occurrence of pain after long walking or heavy work. Most often the first degree a person does not feel the stiffness or limitation of movement, why not go to the doctor, which complicates the subsequent treatment process.
- The second degree of the disease is characterized by a more pronounced manifestation of symptoms: pain becomes long lasting, stronger. Knuckles is already noticeable small bulge. Heels often begin to receive corn.
- Third degree. It is characterized by a significant deformation of the joints of the foot, resulting in a noticeable lameness of the patient, serious limitation of movement, or its complete absence. If during this period an x-ray of the limb, then it is possible to see the absence or a significant narrowing of joint cracks.
As for diagnosis, it involves the following manipulations:
- Collecting patient history, taking into account a detailed analysis of his complaint.
- The x-rays. It is necessary to determine the status of the joint, the degree of development of pathology.
- CT scan or MRI. This study allows us to consider not only bone and cartilage but muscle state.
- Laboratory tests. They provide an opportunity to determine the presence of inflammation in the body.
- Measurement of parameters of foot.
Treatment of arthrosis
To cure such a disease is completely impossible. However, to conduct therapy requires that, in the end, the ending completely lost his mobility.
So, medicinal treatment involves the use of the following drugs:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which not only successfully fight inflammation, but also help to eliminate the pain. To take such drugs you need courses. What should be the dosage and how long is the course of treatment, tell a doctor;
- painkillers. They apply in the case of very severe pain. If the pain impossible to endure, then the patient can be made by injection of corticosteroids. Often make such injections impossible. They are used not more than once a week and only a few times a year;
- chondroprotectors. These are the main drugs used to combat arthritis of the joints. They contribute to the restoration of the destroyed cartilages and prevent their further damage;
- of drugs based on hyaluronic acid, which are introduced by injection directly into the affected joint. Such injections help to improve the mobility of the joint.
In addition to using medicines, it is possible to apply non-pharmacological methods of treatment:
- a plaster "boot". It is only used in severe cases when you need full immobilization of the foot;
- wearing arch supports and orthopedic insoles , which improve blood circulation in the joints, metabolism in the tissues;
- brackets for fixing of limbs;
- a foot massage. To do it you should be very careful and only when passed the acute phase. Apply manual therapy can be at any degree of osteoarthritis;
- UHF, phonophoresis, magnetic and laser therapy . These manipulations enhance the effect of drugs.
- mud baths and hydrotherapy. These procedures provide an opportunity to nourish the joints the necessary "building" elements, as well as to relieve tension and stiffness.
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Physical therapy and surgical treatment
If deforming arthrosis of the foot has reached the last stage of development, and is not amenable to medical treatment, the doctor may prescribe surgery. The operation provides for or full fusion of the joint, or the replacement of individual elements. In the first case, the foot remains motionless. In the second joints retain their mobility, however, the shape of the foot may be slightly changed.
Treatment of arthrosis with the help of physical therapy is also helpful at any stage of the disease. It helps to develop or maintain mobility of the limbs. The most common exercises:
- You must stand on a small distance from the wall (50 cm), place hands on wall at chest level. With one leg stretched back and straightens up (the heel should remain pressed to the floor). On the second leg is the maximum weight of the body, so it is slightly flexed position should be closer to the wall. People should lean to the wall, and the ligaments and muscles of the foot need to exert. In this position, you must delay for a few seconds. Repeat this exercise you need 3 times each leg.
- To avoid deforming arthrosis of the thumb they too need to be trained. For this around, they should wrap the rubber band and pull it at a distance. Next, your thumb need to try to pull the others. In the same way and train the other fingers.
The popular treatment
During therapy can be used pharmacy ointment. They can be cooked from natural ingredients and to treat arthritis at home. However, such ointments are less effective, but to apply them it is necessary only in the complex therapy. There are useful recipes of traditional medicine:
- Salt bath with the addition of camphor alcohol. For cooking you need to mix a tablespoon of salt, 10 g of camphor and 80 ml of liquid ammonia with a liter of water. This remedy can quickly relieve even severe pain.
- Useful and ointment: mix equal parts of dry mustard, salt, honey and soda. The resulting ointment should be rubbed into the affected area not less than 3 times a day. The procedure will ease the pain.
- Eucalyptus infusion. Would need 50 g of dry raw materials and half a liter of vodka. The ingredients you need to mix and let them steep for 2 weeks. The tool is rubbed into affected joints in acute.
- Birch ointment. Need 1-2 kg of dry or fresh leaves steamed with boiling water. Once the raw materials become soft, you should mash these it, turning it into mush. The resulting ointment is preferably applied on the affected area with a thick layer, then wrap with cellophane and leave in this state for an hour. The tool is well relieves pain, redness and swelling.
- Fern leaves. They need a good stretch all night applied to the affected joint.
Lifestyle and preventive measures
Osteoarthritis of the small joints of the foot is a complex disease, which should be taken very seriously. Treatment of diseases requires some lifestyle changes. Will have to give up junk food, Smoking and alcoholic beverages. To eat small portions of not less than 5 times a day. The amount of liquid should not be less than 1.5 liters per day.
Daily simple exercises will allow you to avoid of the disease and strengthen joints.
In addition, there are other preventive measures that will help to avoid the development of disease:
- Reduction of body weight. Along with this reduced the load on the joints.
- The General strengthening of protective forces of an organism, which will prevent inflammation and infection foci.
- Reducing the amount of salt.
- Timely treatment of chronic pathologies.
- Avoid injuries, bruises, and a good rehabilitation in the postoperative period.
- Wearing only comfortable shoes. Need to pay special attention to the quality of the hoist, material of manufacture, according to the size and completeness of the parameters of the foot. Attention is drawn to the height of the heel: the higher it is, the greater the load experienced by the foot.
- Daily warm-up and self-massage of the limbs.
- The walking barefoot on sand or grass.
The disease can seriously complicate a person's life, even to make it invalid. However, timely prevention and treatment can improve the patient's condition. That's all the features of pathology. Be healthy!