Knee osteoarthritis is characterized by the fact that the process of destruction of the cartilage of the joint. Because of the metabolic disorders, cartilage tissue does not receive the necessary nutrients and fluids, resulting in its degeneration.
Suffer from this disease is usually the elderly. But, due to poor lifestyle that every year there is a tendency to diagnose disease at an earlier age. The sooner arthritis is detected, the more effective it will be possible to cope with him at home without resorting to medication or surgical treatment.
The main causes that can trigger pathological process are:
Deforming arthrosis of the knee develops gradually, as dysfunction of articular cartilage lining the surface of the femoral condyles and the articular surfaces of the patella and the tibia. This condition is the result of insufficient blood circulation in the region of the knee joint.
As a result, the insecurity of the cartilage with essential nutrients leads to its desiccation in vel, layering, and destruction. Bone tissue in the thinning or complete disappearance of the hyaline cartilage thickens, forming a compensatory expansion on the periphery.
Clinical manifestations of osteoarthritis are very diverse and, depending on the degree of joint disease can be expressed more or less brightly. What is osteoarthritis of the knee, can confirm the following symptoms:
People must clearly understand that the later he began treatment, the harder it is the higher the risk that will need surgery to replace the joint.
In this case, the disease is characterized by slight pain when performing active movements. May accumulate synovial fluid in the joint cavity, which leads to the formation of Baker's cyst. Pain occur during movement, but are at rest. The cartilage tissue is damaged, but externally, the deformation of the joint is not noticeable.
With the help of x-rays at this stage of the development of osteoarthritis diagnosis difficult, requires additional methods of examination.
There is a narrowing of the joint space, the cartilage is damaged to a large extent. In the picture obtained during radiography, it is possible to notice the growth of bones. Acute pain is accompanied by any movement which involved the knee joint. At rest the unpleasant sensations are, but then appear again. Added to the pain characteristic crunch in the implementation tendentes-extensor movements.
Gradually the function of the joint becomes impossible. The knee ceases to bend and straighten. Externally, the doctor can determine the bone deformation.
Sometimes the cartilage becomes thinner, finally, the formation of bare areas of bone. On the radiograph clearly seen a large number of osteophytes – salt deposits in the joint cavity. In addition, there may be discovered free of the body.
External changes are becoming more noticeable. To cope with the pain, stop the movement, now fails. It persists and when exercising the joint and at rest.
In the diagnosis of gonarthrosis are patient interviews, physical examination and radiography of the affected joint. Sometimes, the doctor prescribes ultrasound of the joint, rarely are imaging or computed tomography of the patient's knee. In doubtful cases, the doctor may puncture to take a sample for the study of synovial fluid in the joint cavity, but usually this is not necessary.
Many diseases of joints are very similar to the eyes of the layman signs and symptoms. Therefore, to understand the situation and make a correct diagnosis of knee OA can only be a specialist. Accordingly, when any signs of disease of the knee joint does not need to deal with sui diagnosis and self-treatment, should consult a doctor. Diagnosis and treatment of knee joint arthrosis (gonarthrosis) is a rheumatologist.
A unified scheme for the treatment of osteoarthritis does not exist, just as there is no one medication that would help all people equally. When planning treatment tactics, the doctor considers the age and condition of the patient, stage of the disease, the severity of pain and the degree of deformation of the joint.
Combination therapy is very important when conservative medical treatment, so it is necessary to combine the treatment to solve several problems:
Therefore, the main methods of treatment of osteoarthritis are:
In recent years, become increasingly popular modern methods of treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint, which can be used in combination with drug therapy and as a standalone therapy. In some cases, they can replace the medications or to combine with it.
New methods of treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee:
Kinesitherapy allows greatly extended the work of damaged tissue and stop the progression of the disease. This method is based on individual selection for each patient of the set of so-called "correct" movements that can be performed in patients alone or with the use of special machines and multifunction devices. Perform these exercise engages not only the muscles, but also helps normalize the functions of ligaments, tendons, nerve endings, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and endocrine system.
Physiotherapy helps the body develop of these substances, like endorphins, are able to exert an analgesic effect and a beneficial effect on the mental state of the patient. Individual exercises, affecting the muscles, allow you to:
Ozone therapy, vincens increasingly popular in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee joint, is easy to use, high efficiency, minimal side effects and good tolerability.
Ozone therapy can be used:
The complex of measures for ozone therapy is chosen individually for each patient. Parenteral administration of ozone has a more pronounced effect and has a number of therapeutic effects:
In parallel with ozone can be applied glucocorticosteroid drugs and Chondroprotectors. This combination enhances the therapeutic properties of these drugs and reduce their adverse effects on cartilage.
For pain syndrome introduction of gas is performed in the area surrounding pathological focus or directly to the pain points, as well as inside of a joint. The number of points for subcutaneous administration of ozone can vary depending on the condition of the knee joint; at one point administered from 2 to 12 ml of ozone.
In parallel with intra-articular introduction of ozone patients assigned to intravenous infusion of ozonized 0,9% solution of sodium chloride (about 400 ml daily). As a rule, the course of ozone therapy consists of 10-12 intravenous and intra-articular injections of 5-7. After 3-4 treatments the patient has improved mobility of the affected joint and greatly reduced pain. Clinical effect of ozone therapy may persist for 4 to 9 months.